Legal Research Development: An International Refereed e-Journal ISSN: 2456-3870 http://lrdjournal.com/index.php/lrd <p style="text-align: justify;"><a class="read-more" style="background: 0px 0px #e51515; border-color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.21) rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.21) rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.34); border-image: initial; border-radius: 3px; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px; box-shadow: rgba(255, 255, 255, 0.34) 0px 1px 0px inset, rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.13) 0px 2px 0px -1px, rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.08) 0px 3px 0px -1px, rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.21) 0px 3px 13px -1px; box-sizing: border-box; color: white; display: inline-block; font-family: 'Open Sans', sans-serif; font-size: 13px; font-weight: 600; height: 25px; line-height: 25px; margin: 12px 0px 0px; padding: 0px 10px; text-align: left; text-decoration-line: none; text-shadow: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.15) 1px 2px 0px; transition: background 0.17s ease 0s; vertical-align: baseline;" href="http://jmsjournals.in/">Welcome </a> <strong><strong><br /></strong></strong></p> <div class="separator"> <div style="text-align: justify;"><strong>The Legal Research Development</strong> is Open Access, Peer Reviewed e-Journal having ISSN 2456-3870 published by Welfare Universe. The journal is having a declared quarterly frequency of publication in each year i.e. SEPTEMBER, DECEMBER, MARCH, JUNE The journal is published regularly and in time in accordance with its the declared frequency. This journal is exclusively dedicated to the scholarly studies of Jurisprudence Law, Human Rights and relevant discipline. The Journal welcomes original piece of own research work and un-published research papers/articles. The Manuscripts are considered for publishing in the journal as Articles, Research Papers, Case studies, Book Reviews, theoretical or conceptual, original, cross-functional, Doctrinal Non- Doctrinal, Empirical Research, Socio-Legal Research, applied research papers, Legal Research, technical notes, and etc which also include critically analysis for all aspect of literature book reviews, translated work from the faculty members, graduates, independent researchers and authors from worldwide. </div> <p class="MsoNormal" style="tab-stops: 77.0pt; text-align: justify;"> </p> <ul> <li><span style="line-height: 115%; mso-bidi-language: HI; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman';"><strong style="font-size: 11.5pt;">Editor- In-Chief: Dr. Raj Kumar Verma </strong></span></li> <li><span style="background-color: white; border: 0px; box-sizing: border-box; font: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; text-align: left; vertical-align: baseline;">Title proper: </span><span style="background-color: white; font-family: inherit; font-size: inherit; font-style: inherit; font-variant-caps: inherit; font-variant-ligatures: inherit; font-weight: inherit; text-align: left;">Legal Research development.<br /></span></li> <li><span style="background-color: white; border: 0px; box-sizing: border-box; font: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; text-align: left; vertical-align: baseline;">Abbreviated key-title: </span><span style="background-color: white; font-family: inherit; font-size: inherit; font-style: inherit; font-variant-caps: inherit; font-variant-ligatures: inherit; font-weight: inherit; text-align: left;">Legal res. dev.<br /></span></li> <li><span style="background-color: white; border: 0px; box-sizing: border-box; font: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; text-align: left; vertical-align: baseline;">Original alphabet of title: </span><span style="background-color: white; font-family: inherit; font-size: inherit; font-style: inherit; font-variant-caps: inherit; font-variant-ligatures: inherit; font-weight: inherit; text-align: left;">Other<br /></span></li> <li><span style="background-color: white; border: 0px; box-sizing: border-box; font: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; text-align: left; vertical-align: baseline;">Subject: UDC : </span><span style="background-color: white; font-family: inherit; font-size: inherit; font-style: inherit; font-variant-caps: inherit; font-variant-ligatures: inherit; font-weight: inherit; text-align: left;">34<br /></span></li> <li><span style="background-color: white; border: 0px; box-sizing: border-box; font: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; text-align: left; vertical-align: baseline;">Subject: </span><span style="background-color: white; font-family: inherit; font-size: inherit; font-style: inherit; font-variant-caps: inherit; font-variant-ligatures: inherit; font-weight: inherit; text-align: left;">Law. Jurisprudence<br /></span></li> <li><span style="background-color: white; font-family: inherit; font-size: inherit; font-style: inherit; font-variant-caps: inherit; font-variant-ligatures: inherit; font-weight: inherit; text-align: left;">Publisher: Welfare Universe</span></li> <li><span style="background-color: white; border: 0px; box-sizing: border-box; font: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; text-align: left; vertical-align: baseline;">Dates of publication: </span><span style="background-color: white; font-family: inherit; font-size: inherit; font-style: inherit; font-variant-caps: inherit; font-variant-ligatures: inherit; font-weight: inherit; text-align: left;">2016<br /></span></li> <li><span style="background-color: white; border: 0px; box-sizing: border-box; font: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; text-align: left; vertical-align: baseline;">Frequency: </span><span style="background-color: white; font-family: inherit; font-size: inherit; font-style: inherit; font-variant-caps: inherit; font-variant-ligatures: inherit; font-weight: inherit; text-align: left;">Quarterly<br /></span></li> <li><span style="background-color: white; border: 0px; box-sizing: border-box; font: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; text-align: left; vertical-align: baseline;">Language: </span><span style="background-color: white; font-family: inherit; font-size: inherit; font-style: inherit; font-variant-caps: inherit; font-variant-ligatures: inherit; font-weight: inherit; text-align: left;">Multiple languages<br /></span></li> <li><span style="background-color: white; border: 0px; box-sizing: border-box; font: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; text-align: left; vertical-align: baseline;">Country: </span><span style="background-color: white; font-family: inherit; font-size: inherit; font-style: inherit; font-variant-caps: inherit; font-variant-ligatures: inherit; font-weight: inherit; text-align: left;">India<br /></span></li> <li><span style="background-color: white; border: 0px; box-sizing: border-box; font: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; text-align: left; vertical-align: baseline;">Medium: </span><span style="background-color: white; font-family: inherit; font-size: inherit; font-style: inherit; font-variant-caps: inherit; font-variant-ligatures: inherit; font-weight: inherit; text-align: left;">Online<br /></span></li> <li><span style="background-color: white; border: 0px; box-sizing: border-box; font: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; text-align: left; vertical-align: baseline;">Indexed by: </span><span style="background-color: white; font-family: inherit; font-size: inherit; font-style: inherit; font-variant-caps: inherit; font-variant-ligatures: inherit; font-weight: inherit; text-align: left;">CROSSREF<br /></span></li> <li><span style="background-color: white; border: 0px; box-sizing: border-box; font: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; text-align: left; vertical-align: baseline;">Indexed by: </span><span style="background-color: white; font-family: inherit; font-size: inherit; font-style: inherit; font-variant-caps: inherit; font-variant-ligatures: inherit; font-weight: inherit; text-align: left;">ROAD</span></li> <li><span style="background-color: white; border: 0px; box-sizing: border-box; font: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; text-align: left; vertical-align: baseline;">Indexed by: </span><span style="background-color: white; font-family: inherit; font-size: inherit; font-style: inherit; font-variant-caps: inherit; font-variant-ligatures: inherit; font-weight: inherit; text-align: left;">THE KEEPERS<br /></span></li> <li><span style="background-color: white; font-family: inherit; font-size: inherit; font-style: inherit; font-variant-caps: inherit; font-variant-ligatures: inherit; font-weight: inherit; text-align: left;">Journal DOI: 10.53724/lrd</span></li> <li><span style="background-color: white; font-family: inherit; font-size: inherit; font-style: inherit; font-variant-caps: inherit; font-variant-ligatures: inherit; font-weight: inherit; text-align: left;">Title DOI of the Journal: http://doi.org/10.53724/issn.2456-387</span> </li> </ul> </div> Welfare Universe en-US Legal Research Development: An International Refereed e-Journal ISSN: 2456-3870 2456-3870 A Critical Study On Raising The Marriageable Age For Girls Up To 21 Years http://lrdjournal.com/index.php/lrd/article/view/160 <p style="text-align: justify;">In many traditional societies, there is a certain law that gives a gateway to the marriage of girls and boys legally. The main object of this Research Paper is to provide why women’s marriageable age has to be increased. Many data have been given with reason but still, the major proportion of women’s marriages is still taking place who are below the 18 years. Also, this paper describes the unfavorable health issues to young mothers and to their newly born children due to the early age of marriage which include undernourishment and high mortality rates. In this paper, it has also been highlighted the complicated issues of marriage age, educational attainment, and low social status of women, and all of these can lead to major health impacts on young women.&nbsp; In this the empirical research methodology has been used since the data has been collected through experiences or observations. I have conducted broader research through Google by searching the legislation. We also searched some papers by using keywords like early marriages, child marriage etc.</p> Apoorva Dixit Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 6 IV 01 02 10.53724/lrd/v6n4.02 Reflection on Indian and Australian Constitutionalism http://lrdjournal.com/index.php/lrd/article/view/161 <p style="text-align: justify;">Every country has its own Constitution but it does not imply that Constitutionalism is also flourishing there. The term constitution and constitutionalism reflects two different meaning.&nbsp; As per the scholars, Constitution entrusted with it the written and unwritten principles, which regulate the administration within a nation.&nbsp; On the other hand, ‘Constitutionalism’ refers to those values, ideas and principles that govern the government organs while performing their function and exercising their powers. These values are so inherent, that without which the spirit of constitution cannot be follows. In the general sense constitutionalism refers a government with limited power and it is antithesis of arbitrariness. Professor Gerhard Casper recognized the descriptive and prescriptive usage of constitutionalism. In descriptive sense it often associated with struggle by historians for acknowledgment of common people’s “right to consent” in constitution and establishment of state institutions as crucial aspect of constitution, and In prescriptive approach it concern with functioning of state functionaries in such a manner that it ensures compliance with constitutional spirit. Therefore, constitutionalism describes both source of power and limitation on that power. Once both India and Australia were British colonies, but after the independence, they adopted their own constitution, which has started to work in its own way. India has a unique experience with regard to constitutionalism. It has excellent administrative structure but excessive bureaucratization, pluralistic society and local politics, which often raise a question on constitutionalism. On the other hand Australian constitution emphasis on institutional arrangements for the purpose of protection of rights and it incorporates sufficient safeguards, which ensure collective decision making by politician. The object of the paper is to provide a comparative analysis of Indian and Australian constitutionalism that will be useful to utilize the experiences of one country to promote the constitutionalism. In this paper, firstly researcher discusses the concept of constitutionalism in India and Australia. Researcher attempted to explore that how the concept of constitutionalism is work and at what extent this concept is undermined in both the countries.</p> Akanksha Chaudhary Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 6 IV 03 09 10.53724/lrd/v6n4.03 A Study On The Rehabilitation Of Children In Dispute With The Law In India http://lrdjournal.com/index.php/lrd/article/view/162 <p style="text-align: justify;">The world’s largest population of children resides in India. The Indian Constitution protects all children in the country have basic rights, and the administration is empowered to take specific measures for them. The Act governs children, sometimes known as Juveniles. This is referred to as violating the law inside the country. The fundamental purpose is to create a juvenile justice arrangement that would focus on reintegration. Its execution is the responsibility of the Department of Women and Child Development. Juvenile Justice Boards All legal rights of children will be respected in India, and actions will be done to protect them. Putting in the necessary effort to ensure their recovery and safety, which includes meeting their physical, psychological, and emotional requirements, societal expectations, and understanding the rehabilitation of youngsters in legal trouble is one of the study's goals.</p> Ramneet Kaur Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 6 IV 10 13 10.53724/lrd/v6n4.04 Confessions And Law In India: A Legal Analysis http://lrdjournal.com/index.php/lrd/article/view/163 <p style="text-align: justify;">The evaluation of the laws pertaining to confession in India brings to the fore the fact that ‘confessions’ has not been defined in any law. This paper is an attempt to examine the embodiment of the provisions pertaining to ‘confession’ under various enactments. The critical discussion encompasses the substantive law as well as the adjective law. Keeping in mind the title of this paper, the provisions have been dealt with in chronological order. The first enactment, which contains provisions pertaining to the confession, is the Indian Penal Code, 1860.</p> Dr. Sunayana Trisal Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 6 IV 14 17 10.53724/lrd/v6n4.05 Role Of Law In Ameliorating The Conditions Of Women http://lrdjournal.com/index.php/lrd/article/view/164 <p style="text-align: justify;">The provisions of gender equality are defined in the Constitution of India through the Preamble, Part IV Fundamental Rights, Fundamental Duties, and DPSP (Directive Principles of State Policy). It not only provides for providing equality to women but also gives the power to the state for adopting measures and from the Laws, Rules &amp; Regulations in their favor. However, even after the passing of 72 years since the constitution was enacted, women face discrimination from cradle to grave. In this paper, we will outline the provisions of the constitution that provide for equal status of women with men making positive discrimination in favor of women and for women empowerment. Thereafter, we will discuss certain important laws that have played a crucial role in securing the safety and dignity of women and empowering them.</p> Divyshikha Singh Copyright (c) 2022 Legal Research Development https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 6 IV 18 21 10.53724/lrd/v6n4.06 Cyber Crime And Its Punishment: An Analytical Study http://lrdjournal.com/index.php/lrd/article/view/165 <p style="text-align: justify;">In the present scenario, people want to live with lots of amenities such as television, laptops, mobile phone, electronic watch, Bluetooth and other etc. After the invention of androids and the touch screens, mobile phones lot of work was done by the mobile phone. With the help of social media, people get to touch each other easily. And go for the communication for personal use as well as business. Nowadays we know that all government offices work out with the help of cyber. And Private sector people also work out by the online system. Even hotel and restaurant delivery systems are online. Railway reservation, Bus reservation, flight booking also. &nbsp;In this article, we will find cybercrime stages and how to people steal data, materials, money, and other information with the help of electronic devices.&nbsp;</p> Vaishali Nagar Copyright (c) 2022 Legal Research Development https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 6 IV 22 24 10.53724/lrd/v6n4.07 A Descriptive Study On Culpable Homicide & Murder http://lrdjournal.com/index.php/lrd/article/view/166 <p>Murder and Culpable Homicide are similar to each other, but they are not identical to each other. Section 299 deals with Culpable Homicide and Section 300 explain the concept of Murder. There is a very thin difference between Murder and Culpable Homicide. It becomes difficult to differentiate between them because both concepts represent “The killing of death”. Murder defines that the intentionally killing of a human being which in itself is sufficient to cause the death of a person whereas Culpable Homicide explains that the act is done with the intention of causing death which is likely to cause the death of a person. It is a common understanding that “Every Murder is Culpable Homicide but all Culpable Homicide are not Murder”. In other words, we can say that murder is a part of culpable homicide i.e. Culpable Homicide is regarded as a genus whereas Murder is species.</p> Rishu Rani Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 6 IV 25 28 10.53724/lrd/v6n4.08